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the Euro 
peace movemen? 

says Qadhaf 

a an eee 


Students are the 

(] From David Mathieson, 
Bursar, Berkeley College, Bristol 

Dear Sir, I feel the time has come 
for me to write to you about Libya, 
and more important, Muammer 
Qadhafi. Having had long exper- 
ience in dealing with Libyan 
students, I get somewhat de- 
pressed with the media in this 
country and_ their continual 
criticism and innuendo regarding 
the Libyan President. It appears 
to me that anyone who does any- 
thing which is based on _ purity 
gets vilified by the Western 
media. If we take the Green Book 
as an example, whilst it is not 
perfect (and I am _ sure that 
Muammer Qadhafi would be the 
last person to say that it is) it 
certainly contains a great deal of 
common sense and logic, which if 
exercised would, I am sure, lead 
to a more balanced way of life. 
One only has to be in contact with 
the ordinary Libyan student to 
understand the benefit and pro- 
gress that has been achieved in a 
short space of time, and to be- 
come excited at the attitude of the 
voung future of Libya who come 
here for their education. 

Finally, having watched Muam- 
mer Qadhafi being interviewed 
several times on television, I 


believe that he is probably one of 
the most misunderstood leaders 
in the world, and this is based on 
my involvement over many years 
in the teaching of English to 
Overseas students. 

Where power 
really lies 

[} From Bashir A Ghannudi, 
San Deigo, USA 

Dear Sir. I have read the article 
about the concept of democracy 
in the December 1981 issue of the 
Jamahiriva Review: ‘People’s 
authority basis of democracy in 
the Jamahiriya’. 

Although the article was a 
comprehensive summasy of the 
authority of the people, some of 
the basic elements of direct demo- 
cracy were not mentioned. The 
theory of part one of the Green 
Book says that the authority of 
the people is based on Popular 
Congresses and People’s Com- 
mittees; the General People’s 
Congress is the place where the 
nation’s policy is to be _ co- 
ordinated. Therefore, the three 
bodies of the authority of the 
people are: legislation and super- 
vision, executives and co-ordin- 

In the article the General 
People’s Congress was described 
as the legislature, with the power 

of moving the members of the 
executives body if they fail to 
effectively implement the policies 
decided upon by the people. The 
fact that the General People’s 
Congress has been given tem- 
porarily some authority during 
the transitional period does not 
make it a legislator. The real 
legislators are the people of the 
Basic Popular Congresses; it is 
they who make sure that the 
decisions they have taken are 
fully executed by the People’s 
Committees — the executive 


Qerories fiom bya 

The latest issue of AZURE magazine, published in London 
by the Arab Cultural Trust, contains a special supplement 
of short stories by 12 modern Libyan writers, introduced 
by Ahmed Ibrahim al Fagih. 

The contents also include a review by David James of the 
Islamic Masterpieces Exhibition in London, a study by 
Miriam Cooke on the influences of the Lebanese civil war 
on seven contemporary Arab writers, a View of Cyrene 
462 BC by Richard Stoneman, and a Tribute to Yahya 
Taher Abdullah by Denys Johnson-Davies. 

AZURE magazine is available from all good bookshops 
price £2.50 or direct from the Arab Cultural Trust, I13A 
Hillgate Street, London W8 7SP (£3.00 including post and 

welcome from 
our readers 

We are pleased to receive letters 
from our readers. If you would like 
to express your views on any 
subject through the columns of 
our magazine, please write to: 
The Letters Editor,’ Jamahiriya 
Review, 13A_ Hillgate Street, 
London W8 7SP, England. We 
reserve the right to shorten long 


No 24 May 1982 

COVER STORY: Concern at the growing prospect of 
nuclear war between the super-powers should unite 
Arab and European progressives. This was the 
message from the Libyan leader Muammer 

Qadhafi when he talked with leaders of the 
European peace movement at a specially convened 
dialogue in Vienna during March. In a transcript 

of the dialogue made available to J amahiriya 
Review, Qadhafi declares Libya’s support for the 
European peace movement. ‘Our resources are 
available for the creation of a new world,’ he told the 
meeting. See page 9. 

Following his recent visit to Libya, the Labour 
Member of Parliament William Wilson talks to 
Phil Kelly about his impressions of the Jamahiriya. 
‘It is ridiculous for a country the size of the United 
States to threaten a country of three million people 
thousands of miles away,’ he declares. The British 
MP praises the achievements of Libya’s thirteen 
years old revolution. See page 11. 

PALESTINE: As the Palestinian people confront the 
Zionist schemes to annex the West Bank and Gaza 
Strip, Alan George reviews recent events, in which 
many Palestinians have died resisting the Zionist 
occupation, and examines the Zionists’ strategy. 
See page 13. 

ARAB UNITY: New measures have been agreed 
between Libya and Algeria aimed at strengthening 
political and economic co-operation between the two 
Arab states. The moves follow proposals by the 
Libyan leader Muammer Qadhafi earlier this year, 
in which he set out his plans for a form of union. 
Details appear on page 12, together with news of 
developments on the Libyan-Syrian- unity scheme. 

BRITISH TRADE WITH LIBYA: In the second of this 
series, Alan George reports on the exports of 
Goodwin Barsby, and how Libya’s orders have 
helped provide employment for British workers in 
Leicester. See page 17. 

RESISTANCE ON THE GOLAN: Syrians living on 
the Zionist occupied Golan Heights have been 
waging a bitter resistance struggle agains the 
annexation of their land. Little attention has been 
given by the world’s press to the six week blockade 
imposed by the Zionists, as Alan George explains 
on page 15. 

AFRICAN REPORT: The dispute over the Western 
Sahara has deeply divided the member states of the 
Organisation of African Unity, which is set to 

hold its next summit in Libya during August. 
Against the background of Libya’s commitment to 


CIO Ta! fe gl di, 1 | cae ee een RAPE A eRe ne ey PaO PT On RE Ti diate 2 
Editorial: The moral decline of the United States .................. 4 . 

A monthly summary of news and events from the Libyan 
Jamahiriya, the Arab homeland and the Third World. 

Libya calls for peaceful solution on Falklands .....................5. 5 
US manoeuvres planned in the Gulf of Sirte .......................8. 5 
Pita CC) AF Ee ON PRCSUING i a Aicoin ei ie ewe ee 5 
Athens, Paris, Dublin: Closer links with Tripoli .................... 6 
French naval vessels join evacuation celebrations ................. 6 
New moves to strengthen revolutionary values ..................... 6 
Need for greater child care facilities in rural areas ................. 6 
Aid for flood victims Ninn OER Ra OB c 3m ent ak ieee A 7 
Sahara summit advances Afro-Arab unity ..................cceeeeeee 7 
Lira Sei OOSTIS HE LVI vcs ccs sacesesecas sid eoctiveietionnsictis 7 
Kenya and Togo improve Libyan ties ....................ccccce ee eeees 7 
PAPC PTTR TEE WEETN IMIIEAL: 655i dis 5655 ic azenercasecdaordezceczinewasans 8 
Women must free themselves, says Qadhafi ........................ 8 
PUT iee TATE HO! GAURTNEL ca vecccanaee cat ds Fascxtenoen adeno eee ieeeiouae 8 

‘We support the peace movement’: Muammer Qadhafi’s 
dialogue in Vienna with European anti-war leaders ............... 9 

William Wilson, a Member of the British Parliament 

talks to Phil Kelly about his recent visit to Libya .................. 11 

Concrete steps to realise Libyan-Algerian unity scheme ........ 12 
Zionists prepare to annex West Bank Palestine ................... 13 
Sacrilege at Islam’s third holiest shrine .........................005. 14 
Gotan Syrians ceteat ZIOMISl DICKAGE fais ebscenees dcecdcisxvecays x fe 
Western Sahara: The evasive peace on the OAU agenda ........ 16 
‘A political solution should be found soon’ ................... Sie 16 



LIVE CREGTES The 111 ICRP 5 oc dacc. os erncesdedieotaasaen ees 17 
Bel sian hatising tor Misrala 266. eh Ais 18 
Major leisure facilities under way in Tripoli ........................ 18 
British consultant for water scheme? ....................c cece eee eee 18 
Turkish contracts estimated at $6 billion ......................0.005. 18 
SU Ter Ee oo IPL ROE TOPINNEE sos oe se tvd scp aeecmayic sees 18 
New pharmacy facility for Al Fateh University .................... 19 
egistr ia -eatate Tor Perma <6 aes: aiccesassiseeerck vara 19 
Prenon exports to Libya tin 75 Per Cent oiksccccoensncccciseecasensene 19 
$48 million investment in oil exploration .......................0000. 19 
Chemicals contract “highly satistactory’ :siccscias cds civsssesse vcevns 19 
TRUCE PG I) OTS ho ee cit i et ecciiaes 19 
Intensive care unit opens at ZUWala ...............0c cece cece cece eee es 19 

Published by Jamahiriya Review, 13A Hillgate Street, London 
W8 7SP. Telephone: 01-727 3131. Telex: 892830 Event GC. 
Printed by W F Aldridge & Co Limited, London SW16 6NW. 
We acknowledge the co-operation of JANA, the Jamahiriya News 
Agency, in providing its daily news bulletin. 

COVER: Photomontage by Peter Kennard, taken from a poster 
published in London by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. 

| find a political solution to the problem, Louis Eaks Photograph of Muammer Qadhafi, copyright D Sattmann, 
reports on developments in the conflict. See page 16. Vienna. 



= aa 


From Jerusalem to Sirte: 

The moral decline 

of the United States 

WITHIN DAYS of proposals by the Libyan leader Muammer 
Qadhafi for the United States and Libya to resolve their 
differences through negotiations, Washington announced 
highly provocative plans to stage new military manoeuvres in 
Libyan waters in the Gulf of Sirte later this summer. Only 
days after the United States vetoed a Security Council reso- 
lution on events in occupied Arab Jerusalem, which censured 
Israeli policies in the Holy City, Jerusalem supplied fighter 
jets with Israeli markings launched the latest Zionist blitz- 
krieg on Lebanon’s capital, Beirut. 

The American propaganda machine has worked ener- 
getically during the past two years to discredit and isolate the 
Libyan Jamahiriya, yet today it must be obvious to most 
people that if a single nation is wholly out of step with inter- 
national opinion and codes of morality, it is the United States. 

Washington has few allies, even amongst West European 
governments, for its stand towards the Soviet Union and the 
decision to escalate the arms race, particularly in the field of 
nuclear weapons; in the Security Council it is generally 
only the US which sides with Israel, and on the recent 
occasions when Washington has vetoed Council resolutions 
concerning Palestine, each of the European Council members 
has voted to support the resolution under debate; and there is 
clear and public concern being voiced by European govern- 
ments against Washington’s sabre rattling approach to Libya, 
and its widely reported schemes to overthrow the authorities 
loyal to Muammer Qadhafi, the leader of the Libyan Revo- 

The Gulf of Sirte 

The American plans for new manoeuvres in the Gulf of Sirte 
are a clear provocation. Libya’s territorial waters extend 12 
miles from the coastline, as is standard for most countries, 
but the Gulf of Sirte was claimed by the Jamahiriya in 
October 1973 under the 1958 Convention of the UN Con- 
ference of the Law of the Sea as an ‘historic bay’, which 
carries the same degree of sovereignty as internal waters. 

Libya is not alone in claiming waters under the ‘historic 
bay’ provisions of the 1958 Convention; the Bristol Channel, 
St Peter’s Bay, Varanger Fjord in Norway, and America’s 
own Long Island Sound are amongst fifty other examples. 

If the United States wishes to dispute Libya’s claims in the 
Gulf of Sirte, there exist civilised and routine procedures to 
take the matter to the International Court at The Hague for 
adjudication. In fact, Muammer Qadhafi expressed Libya’s 
readiness to go to The Hague only days before Washington’s 
latest declaration of newly planned manoeuvres in the Gulf 
of Sirte. If the United States persists in its delinquent 
behaviour, there is no intention on the part of Libya to launch 
some aggression against the US, but Libya has a powerful 
right to defend its territory from American intrusions. 

The American belligerency towards the Libyan Jamahiriya 
stems from many fundamental differences, but none is more 

sensitive than the contrasting stands adopted on the Pales- 
tine issue. Libya stands firmly on the side of the Palestinian 
Arab people, while Washington, for all its efforts to present 
itself as honest broker, is the protector of the Zionists. For 
this reason, if Zionist schemes against the Arab nation are 
to succeed, the steadfastness of Arab determination to 
liberate its territories must be broken, and that means that 
the most powerful supporter of the Arab cause in Palestine, 
Libya, must be removed from the equation. 

The hearts of all humanitarian people must go out to the 
Palestinian people of the occupied West Bank and Gaza as 
they protest with pebbles against the automatic rifles and 
armoured cars of the military regime imposed on them by the 
Israeli occupation forces. It is an unequal battle in terms of 
arms, and there is no doubt that the Zionists are the stronger; 
it is an unequal battle in terms of moral rights and legitimacy, 
and here there is nothing in the Zionist armoury. 

Palestine is under military occupation; the Palestinians’ 
right to self-determination and national independence, 
confirmed in resolutions of the UN General Assembly, is 
denied by the Zionists and the United States. The agony of 
Palestine is not for the Palestinians alone; it reaches beyond 
the Arab nation to every individual who cares about human 
dignity and rights. 

The question is who cares? The Falkland Islands ‘crisis’ 
must clarify in the minds of everyone the double standards 
which exist. On the Falklands, Britain has argued that 
diplomatic efforts demand a military back-up. Yet where is 
such a military back-up to support the Palestinians ‘in their 
heroic struggle? Many nations have supported Britain by 
imposing trade embargoes against the Argentine, yet the 

_ Arabs are castigated for their boycott of Zionist goods, and 
make little effort to ensure its effectiveness. It is a betrayal 
of the Palestinians and a humiliation to the Arab nation that 
there exist regimes and rulers in the Arab homeland who 
readily finance the United States and Zionist capability to 
strike at the Arabs, but are not so ready to make the sacri- 
fices needed to restore justice and dignity in Palestine. The 
Argentine invasion of the Falklands, which Libya deplores, 
has achieved the status of an international crisis, involving, 
as it does, some 1,800 Falkland Islands inhabitants, while 
four million Palestinians are allowed for decades to suffer the 
degradation of exile or military occupation. 

It is difficult to fault the views of the mayor of occupied 
Gaza. Rashad al-Shawwa. When asked about the one day 
general strike declared by Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States, 
he replied that if that was all they could do, they would be 
better doing nothing. It is because Libya voices the feelings of 
tens of millions of Arab people in demanding firm and 
concrete support for the Palestinian people, a preparedness 
to respond to military aggression with military action, that 
Washington is so firmly committed to its plans to destabilise 
the Libyan Jamahiriya. And because this US plan is not 
denied by Washington, the manoeuvres in the Gulf of Sirte 
assume a greater importance than would seem at first sight. 


WW wr 

Libya calls for 
solution on 

LIBYA HAS called on the United 
Kingdom and Argentina to settle 
their differences on the Falkland 
Islands without resort to force. 
The Jamahiriya rejects the use of 
force in the solving of international 
disputes, and to that extent, the 
official Libyan statement is seen as 
a criticism of the Argentinian 
attack on the Islands. But the 
Libyan statement also points out 
that there is no logical way in 
which islands so far away can be 
regarded as part of Britain, and to 
that extent, the statement backs 
Argentina’s claim to sovereignty 
over the Islands. But the official 
statement, issued on 13th April 
by the People’s Liaison Bureau 
for Foreign Affairs affirms the 
need for the people of the Falk- 
lands to be allowed to live in 
freedom should they choose to 
stay there. 

The Bureau, which acts as a 
Foreign Ministry under Libya’s 
system of direct democracy, said 
that it had followed the dispute 
and especially the impending 
military clash, ‘with concern’. 

The statement said: ‘The Brit- 
ish presence in the Falklands is a 
remnant of the colonialist drive of 
the 19th century, and a result of 
the colonialist powers’ agreement 
on delineating spheres of in- 
fluence and control. The Falk- 
land Islands cannot be accepted 
as an extension of the British 
Isles, and at a time when the 
Jamahiriya cannot accept aggres- 
sion against the territories of an 
independent state such as Britain, 
it cannot also regard the Falk- 
land Islands as being part of 
British territory. 

‘The Jamahiriya affirms the 
need to respect the Falkland 
Islands’ population’s right to live 
in freedom should they choose to 
stay there and to pay compen- 
sation for those who seek to return 
to their country. 

‘The Jamahiriya rejects the use 
of force as a principle of solving 
international disputes. This 
principle endangers peace and 
security and is barbaric, sterile 
and backward. The Jamahiriya 
affirms the need to solve inter- 
national disputes through peace- 
ful means. 

‘The Jamahiriya calls on 
Argentina and Britain to eschew 




American pilots boast to a press conference last summer how they shot down two Libyan planes. Now 
Washington has announced plans for new manoeuvres in the Gulf of Sirte (see item below). 

Firm action 
urged on 

armed confrontation, and appeals 
to the world community to work to 
that end. The Jamahiriya is 
currently working through the 
non-aligned movement for the 
adoption of a position affirming 
that the solution of the dispute 
should be through negotiations, 
without armed confrontation.’ 

US manoeuvres 
planned in Gulf 
of Sirte 

IN A clearly provocative move, 
the United States has announced 
plans to stage new military man- 
oeuvres in the Gulf of Sirte on 
Libya’s coastline. The announce- 
ment from Washington caused 
dismay in European capitals, 
where it has been hoped that the 
United States would respond to 
the call from the Libyan leader 
Muammer Qadhafi for face-to- 
face talks between Libyan and 
American leaders to resolve the 
political disputes between the 
two countries. Yet only hours after 
Qadhafi’s proposals, the US made 
it clear that it intends to repeat 
last year’s exercises in waters 
claimed by Libya, and which led 
to the shooting own of two Libyan 
planes by the Americans. 

Washington’s belligerency has 
clearly angered the Austrian 
Foreign Minister Walter Pahr, 
who visited the US in _ early 
March as part of his country’s 
efforts to ease the tensions 
between Libya and the American 

He rejected America’s refusal 

to enter a dialogue with Libya 
aimed at resolving outstanding 
problems between the two coun- 
tries. Speaking in Washington on 
13th March, Mr Pahr stressed 
that Muammer Qadhafi was ready 
to visit the US to discuss prob- 
lems between the two countries. 
He added that he had informed 
Deputy Secretary of State Walter 
Stoessel of the Jamahiriya’s 
wish for negotiations, which had 
been stressed during the Libyan 
leader’s recent visit to Austria. 
Qadhafi ‘would be prepared to 
come here if he would be re- 
ceived, and he would like to 
discuss, so he said, all the prob- 
lems, all the disputes which exist 
between him and the US adminis- 
tration,” Mr Pahr said. He added 
that the Jamahiriya was ready in 
particular to submit to the Inter- 
national Court the dispute over the 
Gulf of Sirte, which Libya claims 
as part of its ‘historic waters’, 

giving it a degree of sovereignty 

over the area. 

The United States has rejec- 
ted a dialogue with the Jama- 
hiriya. On his return from his 
recent visit to Austria, Muammer 
Qadhafi called, once again, for 
talks with Washington, but the 
State Department responded 
by saying that negotiations could 
take place only if Libya dropped 
its support of liberation move- 
ments in Palestine, southern 
Africa and central America. 

The Austrian Foreign Minister 
dismissed the US attitude as un- 
realistic. ‘I don’t think you can 
expect concessions before start- 
ing to talk,” Mr Pahr said. ‘It is 
a mistake to expect results before 
negotiations. Results are a conse- 
quence of negotiations,’ he 

er Muammer Qadhafi has called 
on Arab leaders to act decisively 
in support of the Palestinian 
people, and to spurn' empty 
condemnations of Israeli aggres- 

In a message to Arab heads of 
state on 27th March, at the height 
of the Palestinian uprising in the 
1967 occupied territories ‘(see 
report, pages 13-15), Muammer 
Qadhafi said that the savage 
Israeli suppression of demon- 
strations was ‘yet another insult 
to be added to the series of 
humiliations directed by Israel 
against the Arab nation’. 

He described the Arab con- 
demnations of Israel as ‘meaning- 
less’, saying that they served only 
to undermine the resolve of the 
Arabs under Zionist occupation. 

It was the duty of Arab leaders, 
he said, to help transform the 
Palestinian revolt- in the West 
Bank and Gaza Strip into a ‘war of 
popular liberation’. He added: 
‘We should smash the barriers 
that separate us from them, and 
should build bridges over Arab 
borders with the occupied lands to 
establish material links with 

If Arab leaders were unable to 
do this, he concluded, they 
should ‘at least agree on provid- 
ing the Palestinian resistance 
movement with material resources 
to enable it to help the West 
Bank’s population to face the 
Israeli onslaught’. » 

ee et 



Athens, Paris, 
Dublin: Closer 
links with 

FOLLOWING THE highly success- 
ful official visit to Austria by 
Libyan leader Muammer Qad- 
hafi, the Green Government has 
announced that he will possibly 
visit Athens, possibly in late April 
or early May. This will be the 
Libyan leader’s first visit to an 
EEC and NATO member country. 
Since the election of the socialist 
government of Andreas Papan- 
dreou last year, Greece has moved 
to strengthen its ties with pro- 
gressive Arab countries. PLO 
Chairman Yasser Arafat was 
warmly welcomed to Athens in 
December last year. 

In a further move seen as 
consolidating the links between 
Libya and western European 
countries, Staff Major Abdul 
Salem Jalloud is to visit Paris in 
May. French radio, giving details 
of the visit, said that the Mitter- 
and government ‘considers that a 
dialogue can be resumed between 
Paris and Tripoli as Libya has 
withdrawn its troops from Chad, 
rebuilt the French Embassy in 
Tripoli, and released the Dupont 
family’. The French Embassy in 
the Libyan capital was damaged 
by Libyans protesting against 
French imperialism in Chad; the 
Duponts were held briefly earlier 
this year on suspicion of break- 
ing visa regulations. 

Another EEC member country, 
Ireland, is intending to increase its 
trade with the Jamahiriya. The 
Irish Agriculture Minister, Mr 
Brian Lenihan, is to pay an 
official visit to Libya in order to 
boost cattle exports, the Jrish 
Times reported on 17th April. 
The decision followed an internal 
dispute in Ireland between cattle 
breeders, who are anxious to sell 
as many cattle as possible, and 
food manufacturers, who would 
prefer increased exports of cattle 
products. Increasing exports 

would suit both groups. 

Ireland has enjoyed steadily 
increasing sales of cattle to 
Libya, and has a favourable trade 
balance with the Jamahiriya. Irish 
trade with Libya was worth about 
£80 million in the first nine 
months of 1981. 

French naval 
vessels join 

A CONVOY of ten French-built 
fast-attack Combattante vessels 
went on display in the Gulf of 
Sirte as Libya enjoyed a holiday 
atmosphere on 28th March, 

Austrian Chancellor Kreisky with Muamm 

sy = x 


strengthen Libya's ties with Europe (see news item on left). 

marking the twelfth anniversary 
of the evacuation of British mili- 
tary bases in Libya. 

The removal of foreign military 
bases from Libyan territory was 
one of the first priorities of the 
Libyan authorities following the 
1969 Revolution, when it was 
declared that no foreign military 
forces, whether from the West or 
the East, would be permitted on 
Libyan territory. Since the Revo- 
lution, the Jamahiriya has pursued 
a strictly non-aligned policy. 

As a consequence of this 
principle, both British and Ameri- 
can forces were ordered to evacu- 
ate their military bases in Libya, 
which until 1969 had played an 
important role in Western military 
strategy both in the Mediter- 
ranean and Arab homeland 
regions. In the 1967 June War, 
between the Arabs and the Zion- 
ists, American bases in Libya had 
been used to airlift supplies to 

Internally, prior to the 1969 
Revolution, Britain and the United 
States had exercised an important 
political role in Libya; the regime 
of King Idris provided merely a 
facade of independence, while 

important __ political , decisions 
concerning Libya’s internal 
political and economic policies 

were determined in Washington 
and London, and often imple- 
mented through the multi-national 
oil companies. 

The anniversary of the British 
evacuation was marked as a 
national holiday, with celebrations 
and rallies staged in towns and 
villages throughout the Jama- 
hiriya. The French vessels, part of 
a $496 million order placed with 
Construction Mecanique de 
Normandie in 1977, took part in 
exercises attended by Libyan 
leader Muammer Qadhafi and the 
Armed Forces Chief of Staff, 
Brigadier Mustapha al Kharroubi. 


New moves to 

IF NEW revolutionary values are 
to take root in society, two areas 
are crucial to success. Firstly, 
the new ideals and values must 
provide the basis of society’s 
educational system to bring forth 
a new generation of citizens who 
are not motivated by personal 
greed for power and _ wealth. 
Secondly, the mass media must 
reflect and propagate the new 

The Libyan revolution § has 
constantly striven to create a new 
form of society, based on new 
concepts of people’s democracy 
and the removal of patronage and 
profiteering which are so common- 
ly manifested in other societies. 
The change to a new _ moral 
order calls for a permanent revo- 
lution to challenge those sections 
of society which attempt to thwart 
the new order because it will 
reduce the power and privileges 
which they once held. 

New moves to ensure that the 
principles of the revolution are 
reflected in the media, and 
strengthened through the edu- 
cation system have recently been 
instigated by revolutionary 
students in Libya. The moves 
coincided with the anniversary 
of the 7th April student uprising 
in 1976, when the student move- 
ment forced radical changes in 
the universities. and demanded 
that teaching posts should be held 
by persons loyal to the revolution. 

Both media and _ educational 
centres were the target of the 
revolutionary students this year, 
as they marked the anniversary 
of the 1976 events. On 7th April 

er Qadhafi during the Libyan leader's recent visit to Vienna to 

the students forced radical 
changes in Libya’s media and 
information services, to ensure 
that media would in future reflect 
the values of the Al Fateh 
Revolution both in accurate 
reporting of the news, and in its 
analysis and commentary. 

On 12th April, revolutionary 
students from Benghazi’s Gar 
Younis University marched on 
the university college at Baida, 
and secured the removal of stu- 
dents and teaching staff in the 
Faculties of Education and Agri- 
culture. which they described as 
having become centres of counter- 
revolutionaries. The following day 
in the Libyan capital, revolution- 
ary students demanded changes in 
the Central Tripoli Basic People’s 
Congress. ? 

The students’ actions followed 
a renewed call from the Libyan 
leader Muammer Qadhafi for 
students loval to the revolution 
to ‘increase the revolutionary 
committees movement’ during a 
tour of Libvan schools in late 

Need for 
greater child 
care facilities in 
rural areas 

have made tremendous advances 
in the Arab homeland during 
the past decade, there remains 
a need to expand services parti- 
cularly into the rural areas. This 
priority was stressed at an inter- 
national symposium on pediatric 
medicine held in Tripoli, the 
Libyan capital, during March. 
Organised by the College of 
Medicine of Al Fateh University, 

Photo: Rudolf Semotan 

the symposium was attended by 
doctors specialising in _ child 
medicine from the Arab home- 
land, Asia, Africa and_ the 

The symposium underlined the 
increasing recognition amongst 
Third World doctors of the need to 
co-operate more closely in discuss- 
ing and tackling the _ specific 
problems facing the developing 
nations. Not least of these is the 
need to advance education 
amongst mothers on child care, 
and the proper use of medicines. 
The symposium specifically re- 
ferred to the dangers of over-use 
of drugs and medicines, and the 
need to tighten the availability 
of medicines without a doctor’s 
prescription. It was also agreed 
that there was a need to expand 
the service through the establish- 
ment of more child-care centres in 
rural areas. 

A significant call from the 
Symposium was directed at the 
revival of the Arab_ medical 
heritage. A great deal of medical 
science and technique was inven- 
ted and discovered by Arab 
physicians. Original Arab manu- 
scripts of the Middle Ages have 
now often vanished into European 
museums and collections, and the 
symposium called for their cata- 
loguing, the reprinting of old 
books containing important works, 
and the microfilming of manu- 
scripts held outside the Arab 
homeland to facilitate research 
into the Arab medical heritage. 

To further such research, the 
symposium called for the setting 
up of centres for documentation 
in the Arab homeland which would 
serve as a base for the collection 
and translation of important Arab 
medical texts. 

warm reception 
for Reagan 

A NUMBER of Members of 
Parliament and leading trades 
unionists have founded a ‘Reagan 
Reception Committee’ to organise 
a series of demonstrations when 
the US President visits Britain 
from 7th to 9th June. 

In its inaugural statement, the 
Committee accused Reagan of 
‘blatant hypocrisy’ by pretending 
to condemn the suppression of 
trade union rights in Poland while 
increasing financial support for 
‘the dictatorial regime in El 
Salvador which daily sanctions 
murder and torture’. The Com- 
mittee says that the large sums 

which the British government 
spends on buying American 
weapons, such as the Trident 

nuclear missile system ‘should be 
spend on more hospitals and 
schools, better housing and bring- 
ing down the appalling level of 

‘We don’t want bombs, we want 
jobs; we want peace, not nuclear 

An American protests in Washington against Reagan's foreign policy, 
while demonstrations are planned in London during June; see ‘Warm 
reception for Reagan’ below. 

holocaust,’ said the Committee’s 
statement. When Margaret 
Thatcher welcomes Mr Reagan, 
the Committee says, ‘she in no 
way speaks for the Labour and 
trade union movement in _ this 
country’. The Reagan Reception 
Committee’s address is PO Box 
51. London SW10. 

Aid for flood 

THE LIBYAN Jamahiriya has 
mounted a major relief operation 
to help victims of floods that have 
ravaged large areas of Democratic 
Yemen. On 6th April medical 
supplies, blankets and food were 
airlifted to the disaster area, 
and two days later a delegation 
from the Jamahiriya arrived to 
assess Yemen’s relief needs at 
first-hand. Algeria, and Arab 
Gulf states have also joined the 
relief effort. 

Brigadier Ali Antar, Demo- 
cratic Yemen’s First Vice Premier, 
visited the Jamahiriya in April to 
thank the Libyan people for their 
speedy response to the emer- 
gency. Speaking in Benghazi on 
10th April he reported that the 

floods had killed 428 people and 
left 10.000 families homeless. 
Several villages had been com- 
pletely destroyed, said the Yemeni 
official, dams had collapsed, and 
communications links and elec- 
tricity supplies had been cut. The 
entire agricultural crop had been 
lost. Initial estimates put the 
flood damage at $1 billion, said 
Brigadier Ali Antar. 

Sahara summit 
Afro-Arab unity 

STAFF MAJOR Abdul Salem 
Jalloud praised the ‘positive 
results’ of the sixth summit con- 
ference of countries bordering the 
Sahara, which took place in the 
Mauritanian capital Nouakchott 
on 28th and 29th March. Staff 
Major Jalloud attended the con- 
ference on behalf of the Libyan 

Major Jalloud said that the 
Mauritanian government had 

taken firm and positive stands on 
issues vital to the Arabs, and was 
virtually qualified for member- 
ship of the Steadfastness and Con- 
frontation Front, which links 


Libya, Algeria, Syria, South 
Yemen and the PLO. Countries 
represented at the summit in 
addition to Mauritania and Libya 

were Algeria, Chad, Mali and 
He added that the summit 

showed that Afro-Arab co-oper- 
ation could be consolidated, and 
could become a model for develop- 
ing countries, especially in view of 
the escalated campaign of 
economic, political, psychological 
and military welfare against 
Third World countries and their 

Major Jalloud said that the US 
and the Israelis were now threat- 
ening small countries by forcing 
up interest rates on loans, making 
it impossible for small countries 
to benefit from development 

One of the key issues discussed 
at the summit was the Western 
Sahara dispute. This is dealt with 
on page 15. In its final com- 
muniqué, the summit meeting 
expressed solidarity and support 
for the Libyan Jamahiriya against 
imperialist threats and economic 
pressure, which it described as 
‘a real danger to the interests 
and security of the Libyan people’. 

On Chad, the _ conference 
affirmed its support for the 
efforts made by the Organisation 
of African Unity to help the 
Chadian interim Government of 
National Unity restore peace to 
the country and protect its terri- 
torial integrity. 

Cultural centre 
opens in Cyprus 

THE LIBYAN Jamahiriya has 
opened a cultural centre in 
Nicosia, the first to .be set in 
Cyprus by an Arab country. The 
new centre will eventually have 
four libraries, and will provide 
instruction in Arabic language and 

Mr Muhammad Bashir 
Marwan, responsible for infor- 
mation at the Libyan People’s 
Bureau in Nicosia, said that the 
cultural centre will act as a show- 
case for Libya’s progress, and will 
‘bring our two peoples closer 

Kenya and Togo 
improve Libyan 

THE LIBYAN Jamahiriya has 
declared an interest in strength- 
ening economic ties with Kenya 
by setting up joint ventures in 
agriculture, tourism, fishing and 
transport. In March, Mr Martin 
Shikuku, a Kenyan Assistant 
Minister for Planning and Eco- 
nomic Development, headed ap 



This one-rupee postage stamp has been issued by India to mark its support for the Palestine liberation struggle. 

—ten-man delegation on a_ fact 

finding mission to Libya to explore 
the possibilities for co-operation 
between the two countries. On 
20th March Nairobi radio quoted 
him as saying that the Jama- 
hiriva wanted Libyan Arab Air- 
lines and Kenya Airlines to in- 
augurate direct flights between 
Tripoli and Nairobi. He added 
that the Libyan Education Secre- 
tariat had agreed to send Arab 
teachers to Kenya, while Kenya 
would send Kiswahili teachers to 
the Jamahiriya. 

The moves towards. greater 
Libyan-Kenyan co-operation 
reflect the Jamahiriya’s long- 
standing commitment to close ties 
with its fellow African countries, 
which has cultural as well as 
economic and political aspects. 
On 19th March President Eya- 
dema of Togo received a three- 
man Libyan delegation that was 
visiting the west African country 
for talks on the construction of 
an Islamic cultural centre in the 
capital, Lome. The project will 
be financed by the joint Libyan- 
United Arab Emirates Com- 
mission for Islamic Cultural 

The Lome centre is one of a 
series being set up with Libyan 
assistance in African countries. 
The latest opened in Rwanda last 

with Malta 

THE LIBYAN Jamahiriya and 
Malta have ratified a 1976 agree- 
ment to refer their offshore 
territorial dispute to the Inter- 
national Court of Justice in The 
Hague, paving the way for a new 
era in relations. The ratification 
came on 27th March, after a two- 
day visit to Malta by Libya’s 

Foreign Liaison Secretary Abdel 
Ati al Obeidi, during which he 
held talks with Maltese Premier 
Dom Mintoff, the President, 
Miss Agatha Brabara, and Foreign 
Minister Dr Alex Sceberra Tri- 

The agreement marks the end 
of six years of increasingly strain- 
ed relations between Malta and 
the Jamahiriya over offshore oil 
drilling rights. In October 1980 
a Libyan warship escorted a drill- 
ing ship chartered by Malta out 
of the disputed area. In February 
last year the Jamahiriya banned 
all imports from Malta. 

A joint communiqué issued on 
27th March expressed a _ con- 
viction that ‘this normalisation of 
relations between the two coun- 
tries enables the improvement of 
their political and economic 
relations’. The communiqué 
added: ‘It was also agreed that 

trade relations return to normal . 

as from today, and that the posi- 
tion of Libyan-Maltese joint 
ventures be strengthened’. 

The ground was prepared for 
the agreement one week earlier, 
when Revolutionary leader 
Muammer Qadhafi paid a surprise 
visit to Malta while returning from 
a trip to Austria. During talks 
with Dom Mintoff, it was agreed 
in principle to ratify the two 
countries’ 1976 agreement to refer 
the dispute to the International 

Women must 
free themselves, 
says Qadhafi 

A CALL for women to launch a 
major campaign to free them- 
selves from oppression and ex- 
ploitation has come from _ the 
Libyan leader, Muammer Qadhafi. 

In an interview with West 
Germany's Voice of Cologne 
radio on 23rd March, Qadhafi 
declared: ‘Both East and West 
need a female revolution which 
would restore to woman _ her 
humanity and free her’ from 
injustice and oppression.’ Such a 
revolution, he continued, would 
also restore her natural family 
and marital relationships. Women 
would assure for themselves 
roles and duties that were in 
harmony with their physical and 
emotional attributes, and_ that 
ensured their rights as human 


In the West, said Qadhafi, 
women were regarded primarily 
as instruments of economic pro- 
duction. Any superficial appear- 
ance of equality with men was 
only because they had been forced 
to take on male roles. Women 
remained oppressed since such 
roles conflicted with their nature. 

In the industrial countries, 
Muammer Qadhafi continued, 

family structure had been des- 

troved and badly needed restor- 
ing. since ‘the family, relatives, 
motherhood. fatherhood and 
brotherhood are necessary for the 
development of a balanced per- 

In the East, said the Libyan 
leader, ‘woman is looked upon as 
an object of pleasure and a basis 
for building a home. She is bought 
and sold on this basis. It is the 
greatest abuse of women’s free- 

Brother Qadhafi went on to 
explain the proposals for women’s 
liberation set out in his Green 
Book, which guides the Al Fateh 
Revolution. ‘Men and women 
cannot be differentiated in terms 
of their overall rights,’ he de- 
clared. ‘However, because of 
their different physical attributes, 
men and women are suited to 
different roles. Women should 

carry out only those duties and 
tasks that are in harmony with 
their natures — such as mother- 
hood.’ At the same time, Qadhafi 
continued, women should have 
absolute freedom to take on any 
tvpe of work they wanted. ‘Only 
such freedom of choice’ can 
ensure that women work in jobs 
suited to their nature,’ he 

Stressing that his views on 
women’s liberation were firmly 
rooted in natural law, Muammer 
Qadhafi emphasised that the 
Green Book’s proposals were not 
specifically Libyan, Arab or even 
Islamic. ‘They are humanitarian 
and civilised, and apply to all 
women, wherever they might 

Helping hand for 

GHANA HAS taken delivery of 
about 500,000 barrels of crude 
oil donated by the Libyan Jama- 
hirivya. The oil, worth $20 million, 
was sufficient to cover the West 
African state’s needs for three 
weeks. Delivery was completed 
on 24th March. 

The corrupt regime of Presi- 
dent Hilla Limann was overthrown 
on the last day of 1981, .and 
replaced by a revolutionary regime 
headed by Fit Lt Jerry Rawlings. 
The change was welcomed by the 
Jamahiriya, and Ghana is now 
moving towards a system of direct 
democracy similar to that prac- 
tised in Libya. The legacy of 
Limann’s rule, however, is a 
range of severe economic prob- 
lems, aggravated by the exploif- 
ative activities of multinational 
companies operating in the 
country. : 

After taking delivery of the 
first consignment of Libyan oil 
at Tema harbour on 19th March, 
Mr Appiah Korang, Secretary 
for Fuel and Power in Ghana’s 
Provisional National Defence 
Council, thanked the Libyan 
people for their timely asststance. 
Accra radio quoted him as saying 
that the aid to Ghana ‘proves with 
an unquestionable authenticity 
that Libya is prepared indeed to 
help Ghana’. He stressed his 
confidence that ‘the precedent 
set by Libya in terms of co- 
operation between the two Third 
World countries will continue’. 

It was disclosed in March that 
the Libvan Jamahiriya has offered 
to supply Ghana with cut-price oil 
for the next 15 years. Under the 
terms of the proposal, Ghana 
would not have to pay for the 
shipping of the crude. On 25th 
March a Ministry of Fuel and 
Power official was quoted . by 
Accra radio as saying that nego- 
tiations were already under way 
for Ghana to buy 100,000 tonnes 
of oil from the Jamahiriya for 
deliverv by the end of March. 


Photo: D. Sattmann 

Bets , a’ 

Voices for peace: Muammer Qadhafi meets with (I-r) Rola 


iD pe ed _ 
nd Vogt, Otto Schily and Professor Egon 

‘We support the peace 

Muammer Qadhafi's dialogue 
with anti-war leaders in Vienna 

THE FIRST steps towards closer co- 
operation between Arab progressives and 
the European peace movement were taken 
in Vienna on 12th March, when the 
Libyan leader held a two hour dialogue 
with leading members of the nuclear dis- 
armament and independent left groups 
from West Germany, Italy and Austria. 
Muammer Qadhafi was making his first 
visit to a West European capital for many 
vears, but nevertheless, despite a busy 
schedule of meetings, he had specifically 
requested that such a_ meeting be 

From a transcript of the dialogue made 
available to Jamahiriya Review, it is evi- 
dent that the participants found much 
common ground in their attitudes towards 
super-power politics, mutual concern at 
the serious threat posed by nuclear 
weapons, and the restrictions placed on 
individual freedom and democracy by 
traditional political systems and ideologies. 

Muammer Qadhafi has long advocated 
policies consistent with those of the 
European peace movement: Libya has re- 
jected the manufacture and use of nuclear 
weapons, and repeatedly called for nuclear 
free zones to be created, specifically in 
the Mediterranean and Arab regions, 
and supported similar moves elsewhere, 
such as in the Indian Ocean. Moreover, 
revolutionary Libya has striven to secure 
the removal of all foreign military fleets 
and bases from the Mediterranean region. 

And while the propaganda campaign 
being waged against the Libyan leader in 
the western media has made wild and un- 
substantiated claims that Libya is respon- 
sible for financing European terrorist 

CONCERN AT the growing 
prospect of nuclear war 
between the super-powers 
should unite Arab and 
European progressives. 
This was the message from 

Muammer Qadhafi to leaders 
of the European peace 
movement at a specially 
convened dialogue, during 
the Libyan leader’s recent 
visit to Austria. — 

groups, Qadhafi has long looked on 
European and American peace groups, 
and those committed to ‘alternative’ 
political theories, as the real force for 
long-term and fundamental change. 

‘We support you, we support the new 
peace movement. We welcome this new 
direction in Europe, this new initiative 
for peace,” Muammer Qadhafi declared 
in his opening remarks to the assembled 
peace movement leaders (see inset box). 

In response to the Libyan leader’s 
request for those present to introduce 
themselves and their ideas, the first to 
contribute was Prof Mechterscheimer. He 
commented that the meeting was an 
extremely unusual one, but the _ inter- 
national situation and the growing danger 
of war demanded such exceptional events. 
There was a growing feeling that Europe 
had to stand up against the two super- 
powers which were together pushing the 

world towards war; by Europe was meant 
not just western Europe, but the whole of 
Europe. There had been great interest, 
Prof Mechterscheimer  averred, in 
Qadhafi’s April 1981 declaration of sup- 
port for the reunification of Germany. 

The peace movement in Germany was 
not against the United States alone, but 
against the policies of the governments of 
both super-powers. The central thesis 
of the Peace movement was that people 
should no longer follow governments which 
based their policies solely on the interests 
of the super-powers, said the professor. 

Roland Vogt explained that the ecology 
movement had tried to put forward ideas 
for an alternative life style. This would be 
based on self-sufficiency, rather than the 
unlimited import of raw materials such as 
oil, which entailed a permanent danger of 
war over the control of such areas as the 
Gulf. Mr Vogt said that the movement was 
very concerned with the plans to install 
US medium-range nuclear missiles in 
Europe, particularly in West Germany 
and in Sicily at Comiso. ‘We believe that 
these rockets are not only a threat between 
the two blocs, from West to East, but just 
as much a threat by the North against the 
South.’ It was important, he said, that 
efforts were made towards a common 
approach to the problem between Libya 
and the European peace movements. 

‘The current escalation of tension in 
Europe did not start with the Reagan 
Administration, but goes much further 
back,” commented Otto Schily. The 
positive effect had been that the people 
of Europe had. begun to sense their own 
identity again, and this was ‘a noticeable 
parallel in the political development of the 
Arab nation and the European nation,’ 
he said. This could be the basis for pro- 
ductive co-operation between the two 
nations, based on mutual understanding of 
and respect for each other’s culture. 

Alexander Langer, from the Italian New 
Left, underlined the great differences 
between the other participants in the 
dialogue and Colonel Qadhafi, telling the 
Libyan leader: ‘You struggled for power, 
and seized it. Today, we see hardly any 
possibility of radically altering the power 
structures of our countries.’ But he urged 
the Libyan leader ‘not to confuse the 
Italian people with NATO or the Italian 
government.’ Such a distinction would 
enable an Italian-Arab dialogue to take 

Economic crisis 

Austrian Professor Egon Matzner stress- 
ed that the growing danger of war was 
equalled by the economic, social and 
cultural crises of the state bureaucracies 
of eastern Europe and the capitalist 

societies of the West. ‘This creates panic, 

confusion, aggression. It is the breeding 
ground of violence and terrorism, who- 
ever actually finances it. I am convinced 
that neither the capitalist model, nor the 
state bureaucracy model can overcome this 
crisis. That is why it is urgent that we find 

a third way. Basic components of this third > 




way are greater democracy, more rights An important part of the Green Book, 

— nn ee Eee eee 


for people, in industrial production, in 
relation to state bureaucracy, in the 
family; and more rights for women.’ 

For the Austrian Young Socialists, 
Peter Pelinka said that despite the 
different cultural traditions of Europe and 
the Arab nation, Muammer Qadhafi stood 
as a symbol for two developments; firstly, 
the growing realisation of many young 
Austrians that international solidarity, 
such as that expressed by Libya for the 
Nicaraguan revolution, was a particularly 
important part of political activity. Second 
was the recognition that although the 
peace movement opposed the control of 
Europe by either super-power, the 
present policies of the US administration 
were ‘the aggressive side of this coin’, as 
the latest US threats against Libya had 

The Libyan leader thanked all the parti- 
cipants for the expression of their views. 
‘In principle, I can see no basic differences 
of opinion between us. What has been said 
expresses what we wish and hope for. I 
am happy to find these sentiments in 
Europe.’ Qadhafi said that the issues 
which had been raised were the symptoms 
of a crisis which all agreed existed. Their 
dialogue was directed towards finding a 
way out of the crisis, he said. 

Brother Qadhafi remarked that it was 
no coincidence that both the ecology move- 
ment in Europe and the Libyan revolution 
had chosen green as their colour. ‘The 
colour green was not chosen by accident. 
It represents hope, life and growth, 
paradise, spring. Against green is counter- 
poised fire and destruction. I doubt 
whether a war can be green, nor industry, 
neither evil nor perdition,’ he declared. 

The green flag, said the Libyan leader, 
should be raised as a symbol to mankind 
of hope for material changes which would 
come, a hope for better things in the 

The Green Book, said the Libyan leader, 
started from the realisation that the eco- 
nomic, social.and political crisis meant that 
the world was in a blind alley. This crisis 
could lead to a catastrophe which Marx- 
ism and capitalism could seek, because of 
their bankruptcy, to resolve by violence. 
Humanity would be the victim. 

‘But if the masses will take their place, 
and societies will change, and _ then 
people’s aggressive feelings will dis- 
appear. For example, there is certainly 
no enmity between the Libyan and the 
American people on a personal level. 
The aggressive and reactionary attitudes 
emanate from the Reagan administration. 
All the statements directed against the 
Libyan people come from Reagan, not from 
the American people,’ he continued. 

‘We certainly don’t believe,’ said the 
Libyan leader, ‘that the ordinary person 
in the street has a need to attack another 
country. So, we want ordinary people to 
take power. There will be no government, 
no parties, no military machine, but 
instead, people’s congresses and people’s 

Better than uniform 

IN THE course of the conversation, 
Roland Vogt of the ecology movement 
ment remarked that although Profes- 
sor Mechtersheimer was a _ former 
Colonel, he now wore civilian clothes 
and worked for the peace movement. 
Mr Vogt told Colonel Qadhafi: ‘Next 

time you visit us, it would encourage 
the peace movement greatly if you 
emerged from your plane dressed as 
vou are now’ [in traditional robes] 
‘rather than in uniform.’ 

The Libyan leader smiled and replied: 
‘Because of the peace movement, next 
time I'll come in civilian clothes. ' 

Qadhafi emphasised that it was the 
wealthy who profited from war, and the 
powerful who resisted the loss of their 
power. But wealth and power had to be 
taken from them, and ordinary people 
given the possibility to control their own 
lives. It was also necessary to create a 
movement which would guard these gains 
with the utmost vigilance, in order that 
they could not be reversed. 

‘That is the beginning of a new world, 
of the era of the masses, of the Jama- 
hiriva, as we call it in Libya,’ Brother 
Qadhafi declared. 

Peace leaders 
who met Qadhafi 

Qadhafi’s dialogue with leading mem- 
bers of the European Peace Movement 
were: | 

Professor Alfred Mechtersheimer, one 
of the leading thinkers of the Peace 
Movement in West Germany, formerly 
a Colonel in the German Army, and 
now Director of a Peace Research 
Institute in Starnberg, Bavaria; 

Roland Vogt. a member of the central 
committee of ‘The Green Party’ and the 
Citizens’ Action Group on Environ- 
mental Protection, a member of the 
European Parliament; 

Otto Schily, West Berlin lawyer and 

civil liberty campaigner, a founder of 

the ‘Alternative List’, an_ electoral 
alliance of radical and environmentalist 
Alexander Langer. a founder of the 
Italian New Left Party, a member of 
the regional assembly in the city of 
Professor Egon Matzner, teacher of 
Economics at Vienna University, and 
a prominent theoretician of the ruling 
party in Austria, the Social Democrats 
Peter Pelinka. member of the central 
board of the Austrian Young Socialists, 
vouth wing of the SPO. 

The meeting was organised by the 
Austrian Society for North-South 

Qadhafi said, was devoted to the question 
of racism and the problems of national 
minorities. ‘The Jews were oppressed in 
Europe, and were forced to find a land 
for themselves. That led to the Palestinian 
people being driven from their land. The 
Jews who had come to Palestine should 
return to their own lands, the Libyan 
leader said, and be guaranteed identical 
treatment there as members of other 
religions. Oriental Jews should stay in 
Palestine and build a democratic Pales- 
tinian state together with the Palestinians, 
he said. 

Israel and the bomb 

The present regime was racist and 
aggressive, and certainly had nuclear 
weapons, Qadhafi declared. ‘Israel has 
refused to sign the Nuclear Non-prolifer- 
ation Treaty. Israeli planes are quite 
capable of dropping atom bombs; this 
nuclear power must be brought under 
control, and this could be a basic step for 
the peace movement,’ the Libyan leader 

‘Once the Israelis have been forbidden 
to use atomic weapons, then the whole 
area, the whole of the Middle East, could 
be declared a nuclear free zone,’ Brother 
Qadhafi added. 

The Libyan leader set out his view that 
although the most important goal was 
peace, it was necessary to defend oneself 
on occasion. In particular, he asked those 

present at the dialogue what Libya should 

do if the US Sixth Fleet once again sailed 
into the Gulf of Sirte. ‘Should we simply 
hold up a peace symbol, or are we forced 
to fight?’ he asked. The peace move- 
ment might see Libya’s actions as a mis- 
take. but. Brother Qadhafi explained, 
‘If the Sixth Fleet loses, then I believe 
that this is a victory for peace.’ 

In reply, lawyer Otto Schily warned 
that in addressing the question of Pales- 
tine, it would not be right for two 
enormous crimes — the treatment of the 
Jews in Europe, and the consequent 
Zionist dispossession of the Palestinian 
people-— to be followed by a third — the 
forced eviction of a large number of 
Jewish immigrants from Palestine. But 
he said that there was no question that 
large sections of the peace movement, 
himself included. recognised the right of 
small countries to defend themselves 
against outside aggression, and of national 
liberation movements to take up armed 
struggle against imperialism. 

Summing up the meeting, Qadhafi 
described it as ‘the preamble to future 
meetings with our friends’. He added, ‘I 
consider this a very good starting point for 
future encounters. We can’t discuss every- 
thing at once, but we will hopefully achieve 
our aims together.’ 

‘Our resources are available for the 
creation of a new world. That, finally, is 
what I want to emphasise to you. You can 
depend on me as a colleague and co- 
worker for the realisation of this dream,’ 
he concluded. 


WILLIAM WILSON became the first 
British parliamentarian to visit the Libyan 
Jamahiriya for some years when he atten- 
ded an international conference in support 
of the workers and people of Palestine, 
Namibia and South Africa in Tripoli during 
March. Mr Wilson represented the British 
Labour Middle East Council, which sup- 
ports a peaceful settlement in the Arab 
homeland based on the realisation of the 
rights of the Palestinian people. 

The conference was attended by rep- 
resentatives of more than 150 trade union 
and workers’ organisations from all over 
the world, as well as secretaries of Libya’s 
Basic People’s Congresses and of unions 
and vocational congresses. The foreign 
delegates came from virtually all European 
countries, many nations of Africa and 
Asia, and from Latin America. 

The central theme, Mr Wilson explain- 
ed, was that the workers of Palestine, 
Namibia and South Africa had one 
important thing in common. As well as 
being exploited as workers, they were also 
nationally oppressed, in that they were 
exploited by outsiders, the European 
settlers in the case of Namibia and South 
Africa, the Zionists in the case of Palestine. 

The keynote speech to the Conference 
was given by Staff Major Abdul Salem 
Jalloud, a leading member of the Free 
Unionist Officers’ movement which over- 
threw the former monarchy of Idris 
Sanussi in September 1969. The theme of 
Major Jalloud’s speech was that behind 
the oppression in Palestine, Namibia and 
South Africa lay the support of the US 
administration for Israel and the South 
African regime. The main objective of the 
US,.+ he told delegates, was ‘to destroy 
popular movements, subjugate workers, 
thwart any positive ideas and destroy all 
victories by peoples of the developed 

The sessions, Mr Wilson said, were long 
but extremely interesting. After three 
days’ work, the solidarity conference 
passed a final resolution of support for 
Palestinian, Namibian and South African 
workers, and_ specifically backed the 
creation of a unified media network to 
serve the goals of liberation movements, 
and the establishment of a fund in Libya 
to support such movements. 

High standard 

Mr Wilson, making his first-ever visit to 
Libva, said that he had been impressed 
by the evidently high standard of living 
enjoved by the Libyan people. ‘I was 
surprised by the absence of public trans- 
port. but this is evidently because nearly 
evervone has a car,’ he said; ‘and you 
don’t buy a car if you haven’t got enough 
to eat.’ 

‘We were shown one of Tripoli’s new 
departmental stores. I was very interested 
in this; whenever I go abroad, I make it 
my business to look round the places where 
ordinary people do their shopping, to see 
what they can buy and what sort of prices 
they have to pay. This store, which I 
gather is one of several in various parts of 

MP for Coventry South East, 
recently visited the Libyan 
Jamahiriya as a delegate toa 

conference of solidarity with 
Palestinian and South African 
workers. He described his 
impressions of the 
Jamahiriya to Phil Kelly. 

Tripoli, had a very varied range of goods. 
I saw top class British-made shirts, French 
perfumes, Japanese videos, even Pierre 
Cardin ties. And the goods there were not 
just a display; people were buying them. 
It seemed to me that the standard of living 
of ordinary people was really quite high,’ 
Mr Wilson said. 

The Labour MP felt that it was impor- 
tant that in assessing the present eco- 
nomic position of Libya, it should be 
remembered that the revolution was only 
thirteen years old, and that under the 
Turkish and Italian occupations, and under 
the former monarchy, ordinary Libyans 
had never been considered. ‘To get over 
this colonial atmosphere and create your 


own system, thirteen years is not very 
long,’ Mr Wilson pointed out. 

He had read the Green Book of Muam- 
mer Qadhafi, and expressed his feeling 
that it was an attempt to set out a genuine 
form of socialism: ‘Democracy is not 
simply having a parliament, with a govern- 
ment and an opposition party. Democracy 
can show itself in many ways; and demo- 
cratic processes must develop according 
to the traditions of the country. I think that 
Libya is another example of a democratic 

‘I was interviewed by Libyan Tele- 
vision, who were naturally interested in 
the comments of a British MP. I said very 
clearly that I felt that the United States 
had no business launching naval man- 
oeuvres in the Gulf of Sirte. There was no 
need for them to sail in in this way. If 
the Americans can come thousands of 
miles and sail round the Mediterranean, 
then who can object to the Soviet Union 
doing so? The Americans are clearly in 
breach of international law in that they 
have been doing,’ said Mr Wilson, who is a 
lawyer as well as a parliamentarian. 

‘I told Libyan TV that it was ridiculous 
for a country the size of the United States 
to threaten a country of 3 million people 
thousands of miles away. If the events 
were not so potentially tragic, it would be 
a comedy,’ he concluded. 

The new Secretary of the People's Committee at the Libyan People’s Bureau in London, Mr Adem 
Kuwiri (above) addressed a meeting of Labour MPs at the House of Commons during April. Amongst 
those present were Stan Newens MP, Chairman of Liberation, Ernie Ross MP, Chairman of Trade 
Union Friends of Palestine, and David Watkins MP, Chairman of the Labour Middle East Council. 




Concrete steps taken to 
realise Libyan-Algerian 
unity scheme 

A SERIES of measures 
aimed at closer economic 
and political co-operation 
between Libya and Algeria 
have been agreed, only a 
few months after 
Muammer Qadhafi 

outlined a programme 
aimed at securing union 
between the two Arab 
states. Further progress is 
also reported on the 
Libyan-Syrian unity plan. 

LIBYA AND Algeria have taken their first 
concrete steps towards the union proposed 
by Muammer Qadhafi in his speech to 
January’s meeting of the General People’s 
Congress, the Libyan legislature. On 3rd 
April the Algerian Council of Ministers 
and the Libyan General People’s Com- 
mittee — the equivalent of a cabinet in 
traditional political systems — held a 
joint meeting in Algiers to prepare the 
ground for the adoption of unified eco- 
nomic, social and cultural policies. 

The two countries already co-ordinate 
their foreign policies. Both are members of 
the Arab Steadfastness and Confrontation 
Front, set up to counter the Camp David 
accords and other US-sponsored schemes 
to undermine the independence of the 
Arab homeland. The other members of 
the Front are Democratic Yemen, Syria 
and the Palestine Liberation Organisation. 

Unveiling his proposals for unity 
between Libya, Syria and Algeria at the 
General People’s Congress in January, 
Muammer Qadhafi disclosed that the aim 
was not the establishment of a single state, 
but the formulation and pursuit of closely 
co-ordinated policies. He stressed that 
there was no need for any changes in the 
internal political structure in the three 

On 19th January Qadhafi paved the way 
for the joint meeting of the Algerian 
Cabinet and the Libyan General People’s 
Committee, when he flew to Algiers for 
talks with President Chadli Benjedid. 
Algiers radio reported that ‘the issue of 
Arab unity’ was high on the agenda during 
the two leaders’ talks. 

At the Algiers meeting in April, Libya 
and Algeria agreed to co-ordinate their 
overall socio-economic development plans, 
and the Libyan Planning Secretary and 
Algeria’s Planning Minister were charged 
with studying the question with a view to 

submitting firm proposals to the next joint 
ministerial meeting. 

Within the broader context of co- 
ordination of economic development, the 
Libyan Heavy Industry Secretary and 
Algerian Minister of Industry were re- 
quested to submit proposals for the 
establishment of new joint industrial 
projects to the next meeting of the Council 
of Ministers and General People’s Com- 

Libya and Algeria are both committed 
to the attainment of self-sufficiency in 
food, and it was agreed to step up joint 
research in irrigation techniques. A joint 
company for drilling irrigation wells is 
to be established this year, it was 

On finance, the Algiers meeting agreed 
to bolster the activities of the existing 
joint Algerian-Libyan banks and insurance 
and reinsurance companies, and_ to 
increase the two countries’ joint aid 
programmes in developing countries. 

Oil and gas are key factors in the 
economies of both Algeria and the Libyan 
Jamahiriya, and, in addition to agreeing 
to co-ordinate their hydrocarbons policies, 
the Libyan-Algerian meeting decided to 
establish this year a joint company for 
geophysics, and another for research and 
production. As part of the moves towards 
mutual economic integration, it was 
decided to launch studies of a project to 
supply the western part of the Jama- 
hiriya with Algerian gas. 

The Libyan-Algerian meeting to decide 
to co-ordinate the two countries’ foreign 
trade policies, and to expand the flow of 
passengers and goods between the two 

Algeria's President Benjedid: ‘An example to 
this nation’. 

SHORTLY AFTER April's joint meeting 
of the Algerian cabinet and the Libyan 
General People’s Commitee, further. 
steps were taken towards co-ordinating 
the Libyan Jamahiriya’s policies with 
those of Syria. On 15th April a meet- 
ing ended in Damascus between a 
Libyan General People’s Congress 
(GPC) delegation headed by Mr Ali 
Bilkhayr, the GPC's Assistant Secre- 
tary, and a Syrian Ba'ath Party team 
headed by Mr Tawfiq Salihah, a key 
part official. _ 

Two years ago, Muammer Qadhafi 
called for unity between Libya and 
Syria, and April's talks in Damascus 
were the latest in a series of meet- 

ings between Libyan and Syrian offi- 
cials aimed at forging common policies 
between the two countries. A statement 
issued on [5th April confirmed that 

Syria and Libya would continue 
their detailed consultations. 

The close ties between the two 
countries were underlined on I3th 
April, when Abdel Salam Jalloud, 
an aide of Muammer Qadhafi, held 
talks in Damascus with Syrian Presi- 
dent Hafez al Assad to discuss the 
current situation in the Arab home- 
land, and the possible convening of a 
summit meeting of the Arab Confront- 
ation and Steadfastness Front. 

north African states. Algeria and Libya 
agreed to give priority to each other’s 
imports, and to establish new marketing 
facilities aimed at boosting mutual trade. 

Important decisions were also reached 
on culture and education. It was decided 
to co-ordinate the two countries’ school 
curricula, and to set’ up new research 
institutes. In the fields of information and 
culture the Libyan Secretaries and 
Algerian Ministers agreed to develop their 
broadcasting sectors in the framework of 
an overall plan. The mutual exchange of 
sports teams and youth delegations will 
be stepped up, to give young people a 
greater appreciation of the achievements of 
the Libyan and Algerian revolutions. The 
two countries will also speed up the 
mutual flow of tourists by issuing special 
tourist visas. 

April’s joint Libyan-Algerian ministerial 
meeting was opened by President 
Benjedid, and in a message broadcast by 
Tripoli radio on 3rd April, Muammer 
Qadhafi thanked him for hosting the talks, 
and for having personally opened them. 
The Libyan leader described the meeting 
as ‘an earnest and certain turning point 
towards realising the great objective and 
the great hope, Arab unity’. President 
Benjedid, he added, had ‘given an example 
of sincerity to this nation so it can get out of 
the state of words and wishes, and into 
the circle of action’. 

(J A report of Muammer Qadhafi's speech to 
the General People's Congress appeared in the 
February 1982 issue of Jamahiriya Review, and 
his visit to Algeria with details of the unity plan 
was reported in the March 1982 issue. 


in Zionist occupied Palestine 
are staging a defiant stand 
against Israel’s plans to 
annex the West Bank and 

Gaza Strip. On the recently 
annexed Syrian Golan 
Heights, the Zionists have 
faced determined resistance 
from the Arab inhabitants. 

ISRAEL’S TERROR campaign against the 
Palestinians of the 1967 occupied terri- 
tories has reached a new pitch with daily 
shootings of Arabs by Zionist troops and 
extremist settlers. The worst atrocity came 
on 11th April, when a group of Israeli 
soldiers burst into the Mosque of Omar in 
occupied Arab Jerusalem, firing into 
crowds of worshippers in Islam’s third 
holiest shrine. The violent attacks on 
Palestinians, are part of a wider Zionist 
strategy to drive out the Palestinians of 
the West Bank and Gaza Strip as the pre- 
lude to annexing the occupied regions. 

A key element in the Israeli strategy 
has been to neutralise the nationalist Arab 
leadership in the 1967 occupied territories. 
The elected Mayors in the West Bank 
have for years been persistent targets 
for harassment and intimidation by Israeli 
troops and armed settlers. In 1980 the 
Zionists summarily deported the Mayors 
of the towns of Hebron and Halhoul. 
Shortly after, Mayor Bassam Shaka 
of Nablus and Karim Khalaf of Ram- 
allah were both maimed in car bomb 
attacks, perpetrated by Zionist settlers in 
collaboration with Israeli intelligence. 

In its latest bid to eliminate the local 
Palestinian leadership, the Zionist military 
authorities on 18th March dismissed the 
Mayor and entire city council of occupied 
El Bireh, on the pretext that the 
municipal leaders had refused to meet with 
Colonel Menachem Milson, the Israeli 
‘civilian’ governor of the West Bank. The 
move prompted a wave of angry protests 
by Palestinians. 

Occupied forces responded with their 
habitual ferocity. Soldiers and armed 
settlers fired point blank at demonstrators, 
killing and wounding scores. Many more 
Palestinians were wounded in tear gas 
and baton attacks. Tight curfews were 
clamped on a number of towns and 
villages. In a vain attempt to break a 
general strike, Israeli troops threatened 
shopowners with imprisonment or the 
permanent closure of their premises. 

Top: A Palestinian woman expresses her defiance in the face of armed Zionist troops outside the On 25th March, the Zionists moved 
Dome of the Rock in occupied Arab Jerusalem; Centre: Zionist police deal with a Palestinian again. Mayors Bassam Shaka of Nablus 
demonstrator following the shooting at the Dome of the Rock; Bottom: Zionist occupation troops and Katim Khalaf of Ramallah were 
patrol the deserted streets of towns on the West Bank. 

Photo: Network 

Photo: Network 

Photo: Gamma 

summoned to local military headquarters 
and served with dismissal notices. Both 
are now under house arrest. The dis- 
missals of two of the most widely respected 
political figures in the 1967 occupied terri- 
tories brought the wave of Palestinian 
protests to a new pitch. The Zionists» 



> maintained their policy of using maximum 

force against the unarmed protesters; 
more Arabs were killed and wounded. 


The neutralisation of the elected Pales- 
tinian leadership in the 1967 occupied terri- 
tories is only part of the Zionists’ strategy. 
The other is to create a compliant ‘alter- 
native’ leadership of collaborators. Israel 
has been sponsoring and funding a number 
of village leagues on the West Bank. 
Ostensibly these are self-help organis- 
ations, but their real purpose is more 
sinister. Israel has blocked the flow of 
badly needed development funds from 
Arab countries to the West Bank muni- 
cipalities, and has moved to curb the 
influence of the elected Mayors. Mean- 
while, the village leagues are provided 
with abundant finance by the Zionists, 
and many of the powers of the muni- 
cipalities are systematically being trans- 
ferred to the leagues. Israel’s hope is 
that the Palestinian masses will be 
rendered dependent on the collaboration- 
ist village leagues, and transfer their 
loyalties away from the nationalist mayors. 

The Zionist strategy on the West Bank 
is the brainchild of the recently appointed 
Israeli ‘civilian’ governor, Menachem 
Milson, who is actually a Colonel in the 
Israeli army. Milson was appointed on 
Ist November last. His counterpart in the 
occupied Gaza Strip is Brigadier-General 
Yosef Lunz, the region’s ‘former’ military 

Milson’s objective is to annex the 
West Bank under the guise of imple- 
menting the Camp David autonomy 
scheme. Camp David called for an ‘auto- 
nomous’ Palestinian council in the West 
Bank and Gaza. But its powers would be 
limited to such matters as bus services 
and refuse collection. Even then its every 
act would be subject to an Israeli veto. 
The regions would remain under Zionist 
occupation. The Palestinians rejected the 
proposal outright, as falling far short of 
their right to an independent state of their 
own in Palestine. Unable to come up with 
any genuine Palestinian leaders ready to 
take part in the autonomy plot, the Zion- 
ists set about nurturing their collaboration- 
ist ‘alternative’ leadership. 

Zionist territorial designs on _ the 
West Bank and Gaza are not inconsistent 
with the Camp David scheme. In fact, 
Camp David offers a useful cloak of 
spurious international legality for the 
Israeli plan. Shortly after the accords were 
signed,.. Zionist premier Menachem 
Beigin declared that ‘autonomy’ would 
apply only to people, and not to land. 

The only factor making the Zionists 
pause is the presence of the 1.2 million 
Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and 
Gaza Strip. Zionism is a racist philosophy, 
and there has never been room in the 
Zionist state for a substantial non-Jewish 
minority. Zionist aims are the same today 
as they were at the turn of the century: 
they want the land, but not the people. 

In the 1948 Palestine war, the Zionists 

succeeded in driving out the majority 
of Arabs from the area on which Israel was 
set up. Since 1967, the Israelis have done 
all they can to ‘encourage’ Palestinians 
to emigrate from the West Bank and Gaza. 
Last November the American Foundation 
for Peace in the Middle East reported 
that more than 250,000 Palestinians had 
left the West Bank since its seizure in 
1967. About 12,000 Arabs leave the West 
Bank each year. One reason is the intimi- 
dation and harassment by the occupation 
forces and armed settlers. Another is the 
lack of employment opportunities. Israel 
has deliberately starved the occupied 
territories of development funds. Skilled 

Ly ee 
Sacrilege at Islam's 
third holiest shrine 

MUSLIMS HAVE been outraged by an 
attack staged by Israeli troops in the 
Mosque of Omar in occupied Arab 
Jerusalem. Dating from the seventh 
century. the mosque is the third holiest 
shrine in Islam. 

On IIth April Israeli troops stormed 
the shrine, firing indiscriminately at 
worshippers. By the time the men had 
run out of ammunition two Pales- 
tinians had been killed and seven 

Israel tried to dismiss the outrage as 
the work of a single ‘mentally deranged’ 
man. But the American settler respon- 
sible for most of the shooting was in 
fact a serving member of the Zionist 
army, and his weapon was a standard 
army-issue American M-16 rifle. West 
Bank Arabs pointed out that if he had 
heen really psychologically unstable, he 
would never have been accepted into 
the Israeli army. 

It emerged later that the gunman 
had at least one accomplice, reinforc- 
ing Arab suspicions that the atrocity 
was Officially inspired. On 16th April 
Christopher Walker commented in 
The Times: ‘The new evidence (of the 
presence of more than one killer) has 
been embarrassing to the _ Israeli 
government, which has been at pains to 
emphasise that the fatal shooting was 
the work of one mentally deranged 
man. ' 

The Jerusalem outrage prompted a 
one week general strike throughout 

the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Thou- 
sands of Palestinians took to the streets 
to show their anger, and their rejec- 
tion of the Israeli occupation. Zionist 
troops shot point-blank at demon- 
strators, killing several and wounding 
scores. One of those killed in the Gaza 
Strip was a seven-year old boy. 


Palestinian workers cannot find work 
within the Zionist state, and have no 
option but to emigrate in search of a liveli- 
hood. The only employment opportunities 
in Israel for Palestinians are unskilled 
manual jobs. The Zionists regard the 
West Bank Palestinians as a useful pool of 
cheap labour, in much the same way as 
the apartheid regime in Pretoria looks to 
the Bantustans as a source of cheap labour. 


There are clear signs that the Zionists are 
planning to force a mass exodus of Pales- 
tinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, 
to pave the way for outright annexation. 
The systematic violence with which the 
occupation forces attempted to quell the 
Palestinian protests in March and April 
suggests that a key aim was to induce 
panic amongst the population, prompting 
them to flee. 

On 1Sth April Zionist radio disclosed 
that senior army officers had requested 
much greater ‘flexibility’ in the rules 
governing the firing of live ammunition 
at Arab protesters. It was an ominous 
request from men who had already killed 
and wounded scores of demonstrators in 
a few short weeks. 

On 25th March the Hebrew daily Davar 
quoted Gaza Palestinians as saying, ‘The 
army is doing everything to encourage a 
flight of inhabitants from the Gaza Strip’. 
The report centred on the attempted rape 
of a local Arab schoolgirl by a Zionist 
army Officer. 

Similar acts of gratuitous violence, 
not directly connected with Palestinian 
protest demonstrations, have occurred in 
the West Bank. On 8th April, only three 
days before the atrocity at the Dome of the 
Rock. a forty-year old Palestinian mother 
was shot dead by an Israeli soldier working 
her family farm near the Zionist settle- 
ment of Beit El. The soldier claimed 
that she had tried to steal ammunition 
from an Israeli army base, but Eric 
Silver reported in The Guardian on 10th 
April: ‘Arab witnesses maintained that the 
woman was tilling a field of oats with her 
four children when she was killed by a 
single shot.’ 

Under the leadership of the Palestine 
Liberation Organisation, however, the 
Palestinians are today much more united 
than they were in 1948, when the 
Zionist terrorist groups had little diffi- 
culty in expelling them in their hundreds 
of thousands. The Arabs of the West 
Bank and Gaza, together with their breth- 
ren in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights, 
are standing firm. But the worst may yet 
be in store. The heavily armed Zionist 
settlers in the 1967 occupied territories 
have already played a part in the terror 
campaign against the Palestinian Arabs. 
As the Zionist government grows increas- 
ingly desperate in the face of a Pales- 
tinian steadfastness, it may unleash a 
campaign of terror by the settlers that 
would make the recent shootings in the 
West Bank and Gaza pale into insigni- 

A ZIONIST attempt to break a general 
strike by the 15,000 Syrians of the occupied 
Golan Heights has failed, despite the 
imposition of a six-week blockade on the 
region by the occupation forces. The strike, 
called to protest last December’s annex- 
ation of the Golan Heights and the arrest 
of local Arab leaders, has already been in 
force for more than two months and shows 
no sign of ending. Israel is now alarmed 
at the growing solidarity between the 
Golan Syrians and the Palestinians living 
under Zionist occupation in the West Bank 
and Gaza Strip. 

The Golan strike was called on 14th 
February. Its immediate cause was the 
arrest of four local Syrians accused by 
Israel of inciting resistance to the annex- 
ation, but the question of Zionist identity 
cards was another key issue. For the past 
year the occupation forces have been try- 
ing to coerce the Syrian Arabs into 
replacing their military IDs with civilian 
documents. The Golan residents have 
resolutely spurned the new IDs, arguing 
that to accept them would imply acqui- 
escence in permanent Israeli domination. 
In March, Zionist interior minister Yosef 
Burg declared that as of 1st April all adult 
Syrians would be required to carry civilian 

Faced with a total strike on the Golan, 
the Zionists on 25th February sealed off 
the region’s four largest villages. Road 
blocks were set up, the villages were 
ringed with barbed wire, and telephone 
lines were cut. The only residents allowed 
through the Zionists’ ring of steel were the 
few collaborators who had accepted the 
new identity cards. During the blockade, 
occupation forces went from house to 
house, systematically intimidating the 
Syrians in a vain bid to force them to 
accept the new identity cards. 

On 13th March the London weekly 8 
Days quoted Mr Ahmad Qadamani, a 
prominent personality from the Golan 
village of Majdal Shams, as saying, ‘We 
will not give in, however harsh our daily 
living conditions are made. This so-called 
only democratic state in the region does not 
even allow medical supplies to our children 
to go through, and stops reporters from 
covering the difficulties our people are 
going through.’ 

He continued: ‘If the Security Council is 
not discussing the Golan, whatever hap- 
pens there — and however. badly the vil- 
lagers are treated — does not seem 
newsworthy. In Europe there are organ- 
isations which defend the rights of 
animals. But our people, basic require- 
ments such as water are being denied.’ 

Even some Zionists were shocked by 
the occupation forces’ treatment of the 
Golan Druse during the strike and 
blockade. On 15th April Haim Cohen, a 
retired Supreme Court judge, and Chair- 
man of the Israel Civil Rights Association 
said that the Syrians had been treated 
harshly and illegally since going on 
strike. He cited one case in which a girl 
with her eyes bandaged after an accident 
had been prevented from leaving her 

Syrian Druze inhabitants of the Golan Heights walk past shuttered shops in Majdal Shams during the 

strike to protest the Zionists’ illegal annexation of the territory. 

Golan Syrians defeat 

Zionist blockade 

unprecedented in the lands 
seized by Israel in 1967, 
the Arabs of the occupied 
Syrian Golan Heights are 

staging a general strike that 
has lasted for more than two 
months, and shows no sign 
of petering out. Dr Alan 
George reports on the defiant 
protest action. 

village to receive hospital treatment be- 
cause she was not carrying acceptable 
identification. ‘The only law on the Golan 
Heights is barbarian law,’ he declared. 
Most residents of the Golan Heights are 

‘members of the Druse ‘religion, an off- 

shoot of Islam. During the fifteen years 
of occupation, Israel has tried to prevent 
any solidarity developing between the 
Golan Heights and the Palestinians of the 
West Bank and Gaza by exploiting their 
different cultural traditions. But the 
signs of the Zionists’ failure are un- 

With the imposition of the Golan siege, 
West Bank Palestinians swiftly organised 
relief deliveries to the blockaded villages. 
Alarmed at this development, occupation 
forces clamped down on the relief oper- 
ation. On 26th February four West 
Bankers who had organised food and 
medical deliveries were placed under town 
arrest. They included Dr Amin al Hatib, 
head of the Union of Charitable Societies 
in Arab Jerusalem, and Mr Samih Abu 
Issa, a member of Hebron’s’ Red 
Crescent Committee. Relief parcels and 
cash gifts assembled in the West Bank for 
shipment to the Golan Druse were seized 
by the Zionists. Relief lorries that did 

succeed in reaching the Golan were turned 
back at road blocks, and their loads 

In late February, Druse leaders in the 
Golan cabled Palestinian leaders in the 
West Bank declaring: ‘Your struggle and 
our struggle against the occupation are 
one.’ The Druse residents of the 1948 
occupied territories also demonstrated 
their support for the Golan strike. On 
26th March Druse from throughout the 
Galilee region of northern Palestine staged 
a rally in the village of Shafr Amr in 
solidarity with the blockaded Syrian 

Tear gas and bullets 3 
Zionist occupation forces in the Golan 
responded to. protest demofstrations 
during the general strike with the same 
ferocity as the troops in the occupied 
Palestinian territories. On 16th March 
Druse in the village of Majdal Shams took 
to the streets in protest at the Zionist 
blockade. They were attacked with tear gas 
and batons, and a strict curfew was clamp- 
ed on the village. On 2nd April troops fired 
point blank at demonstrators in Majdal 
Shams and Mas’ada, wounding four 
Syrian Arabs. Scores of Druse from the two 
communities were arrested. 

Initially the Zionists set 1st April as the 
date for lifting the Golan blockade. Their 
hope was that the Syrian protest action 
would have crumbled by then, and that 
the majority of Druse would have accep- 
ted Zionist identity cards, in accordance 
with the interior minister’s deadline. But 
with no sign of any break in the 
Syrians’ stubborn resistance, the Israelis 
extended the siege in a final bid to break 
the Druse morale. It was already clear, 
however, that the Zionists would be 
forced to concede defeat, and on Sth 
April the blockade was finally lifted, after 
six weeks. 





Western Sahara: 

The evasive peace 

on the OAU agenda 

AT LAST year’s OAU summit in Nairobi 
there was rejoicing amongst African 
leaders that a formula appeared to have 
been reached on which peace would be 
restored to the war-torn territory in the 
Western Sahara. Both Polisario, the liber- 

ation movement representing the Saharan 

people, and the Moroccan government, 
which took over the territory when Spain 
evacuated her colony in 1975, had agreed 
to a referendum to determine the terri- 
tory’s future. 

Yet less than a year later, both sides 
are locked in a military and diplomatic 
confrontation, more intense and _ bitter 
than at any time in the past. Polisario has 
been strengthened in its position by the 
recognition afforded the Saharan Arab 
Democratic Republic. SADR was_ pro- 
claimed by Polisario in 1976, and is today 
recognised by a narrow majority of OAU 
member states. Morocco, meanwhile, 
has adopted a tougher stand, encouraged 
by the firmer support given by Washing- 
ton under the Reagan administration 

At stake for the Saharans is their right 
to self-determination and national indepen- 
dence, which was denied them at the time 
of the Spanish withdrawal in 1975. Instead, 
Spain agreed with Morocco and Mauri- 

tania for the region’s partition and admin- 

istration by the neighbouring states to 
the north and south. At stake for the 
Moroccans are the’ rich phosphate 
resources of the region which could 
enhance the kingdom’s economy. In turn, 
these resources have drawn US multi- 
nationals to lobby the White House to 
support King Hassan following Mauri- 
tania’s decision to withdraw its claim over 
part of the territory in 1979; military 
set-backs and the crippling burden of the 
cost of the war brought about Mauri- 
tania’s decision. 

Morocco justifies its position by argu- 
ing that Polisario and SADR have been 
artificially created by Polisario’s prime 

THE WAR in the Western 
Sahara, between Polisario 
and Morocco, has deeply 
divided the members of the 
Organisation of African 
Unity. With Libya committed 
to securing a political 
settlement, and about to 
host the 1982 OAU summit, 
Louis Eaks examines this 
little-publicised war. 

supporters, Algeria and Libya. Polisario. 

says Morocco, is part of a communist 
scheme to destabilise the region and the 
Moroccan regime. This has led to a major 
stumbling block to a negotiated settle- 
ment: Morocco does not recognise Poli- 
sario, and will not engage in face-to-face 

A second problem has arisen over the 
two sides’ interpretation of the proposal 
for a referendum which was agreed at 
the Nairobi OAU summit last year. 
Morocco insists that the referendum 
should be based on the 1974 Spanish 
census which gives the population of the 
region at 40,000; Polisario puts the 
population at 750,000, while an indepen- 
dent assessment from Agence France 
Presse concedes a population of 250,000. 

Faced with a firm stand by Morocco 
on the issues of recognising Polisario and 
over the referendum, Polisario returned 
to the military offensive last October 
and dealt a severe blow to the Moroccan 
forces. In the largest battle of the war, 
Saharan forces attacked the two last impor- 
tant positions held by Morocco outside the 
so-called ‘Useful Triangle’, a _ fortified 
area bringing the phosphate region with 
a ‘wall’ to stop Saharan attacks. 
Polisario forces destroyed the 2,000- 

PS ae 

Atlantic 1] | | 


strong Moroccan garrison at Guelta 
Zemmour, captured a great deal of equip- 
ment and downed five Moroccan planes. 
At the beginning of the attack, the des- 
truction of the US supplied C130 Her- 
cules observation plane in charge of co- 
ordinating the aerial attack blinded the 
Moroccan air support, forcing the planes 
to fly low and opening them to ground 
fire from Saharan forces. Moreover, the 
Saharans destroyed the electronic defence 
system installed in 1980 by French and 
North American specialists, rendering 
access difficult to the country’s western 

If Polisario had hoped this offensive 
would lead to a change in Morocco’s 
stance towards the OAU formula, it was 
wrong. The Rabat government has re- 
mained firm, and the United States has 
responded by increasing its military 
support to Morocco; reports suggest that 
at least twelve American military advisers 
are now present in the area, assisting with 
aviation and communications at Smara 
and El-Aioun. 

A recent decision to admit SADR to the 
OAU has created further divisions within 
the OAU, with Morocco’s’ supporters 
threatening to boycott further meetings 
of the African body so long as SADR has 
membership. The next three months 
leading up to the OAU summit in Tripoli, 
when the Libyan leader Muammer 
Qadhafi will become Chairman of the 
OAU for the next year, provides little time 
for a political settlement to be reached. 

‘A political solution should be found quickly’ 

‘THE PRESENT crisis in the OAU 

“makes it imperative that a_ political 
solution should be quickly found to 
the Western Sahara problem.’ declared 
a communiqué issued on behalf of 

Libya, Mauritania, Chad. Mali and 
Niger at the end of the sixth summit 
conference of countries bordering the 
Sahara, held in the Mauritanian 
capital in late March. 

Staff Major Abdul Salaam Jalloud, 
who attended on behalf of the Libyan 

Jamahiriya, viewed the conference as 

an important move in consolidating 
A fro-Arab co-operation. 

The final communiqué issued in 
Mouakchott on 30th March, said: 
‘On the Western Sahara, the con- 
ference discussed recent developments 
and re-affirmed the political statement 
issued following the Bamako summit, 
expressing support for the Sahrawi 
people's right to  self-determination. 
They also referred to the urgent need 
to implement decisions taken by the 
UN and OAU ina bid to find a just and 

final solution to the dispute in the 
Western Sahara. They expressed con- 
cern at the increasing tension in the 
Western Sahara, saying it constitutes 
a threat to regional peace and security. 
They said that the present crisis in 
the OAU makes it imperative that a 
political solution should be quickly 

found to the Western Sahara problem. ' 

() See Panorama News Review for 
other issues discussed at the Nouak- 
chott summit. 

Libya creates jobs in Leicester 

THE LIBYAN Jamahiriya’s development 
has been on such a scale that visitors 
often describe the country as a vast con- 
struction site. Libya’s 1981-85 develop- 
ment plan alone allocates $62.5 billion to 
expand all sectors, from industry and agri- 
culture to health, education and roads. 
With construction pressing ahead on such 
a range of projects, Libya has needed a 
fully array of construction equipment. One 
of the firms helping to meet requirements 
is Leicester-based Goodwin  Barsby, 
which manufactures specialised asphalt 
and rock crushing machinery. 

Goodwin Barsby’s first involvement in 
Libya was through orders placed by 
Indian contracting firms. The India Roads 
Construction Corporation and the Inter- 
national Airports Authority of India 
placed important orders in connection with 
their construction projects. The British 
equipment, however, soon attracted a 
wider interest, and the Libyan contracting 
firm Arab Union United Corporation 
recently placed an order for two of Good- 
win Barsby’s Goliath mobile crushing and 
screening plants, which are used for pro- 
cessing wadi gravel and limestone rock. 
AUCC is currently considering the 
purchse of more Goodwin Barsby plant. 

Libya is aware that one of the major 
constraints on its socio-economic develop- 
ment programme is the shortage of skill- 
ed workers that characterises any Third 
World country. The 1981-85 development 
plan plus special emphasis on technical 
training for the Jamahiriya’s citizens, 
and Goodwin Barsby is playing a role 
towards that end. The firm currently has 
seven engineers in Libya whose task is to 
install and commission the firm’s plant, 
and to train citizens to take over and 
operate the machinery. 

The British firm, which exports about 

aia e em | 

development programme 
requires a full range of 
modern construction 
machinery. Alan George 
discovered how Goodwin 
Barsby, which manufactures 
specialised rock crushing 

and asphalt mixing 
equipment, is helping to meet 
the Jamahiriya’s needs. 

85 per cent of its output, sees Libya as 

‘an extremely important destination for 

its products. After only fourteen months 
of involvement in the Jamahiriya, Goodwin 
Barsby has already won orders valued at 
£1,660,000, and Libya accounts for about 
one quarter of the firm’s total overseas 

At a time of severe recession in the UK, 
in which the construction industry has been 
particularly hard-hit, export orders have 
taken on a new significance. Many of 
Goodwin Barsby’s 200 workers would 
doubtless have been laid off had it not been 
for the Libyan orders. 

New product range 

Following a major development pro- 
gramme over the past two years, Goodwin 
Barsby now boasts a full range of the most 
modern rock crushing and _ asphalt 
machinery, which it offers at highly 
competitive prices. The Ajax and Goliath 
mobile rock crushers, and the Turbo- 
matic 100 Drum Mixer, for asphalt pro- 
cessing, have proved particularly popular. 

The Ajax has an output capacity of 150 
tonnes per hour, and the Turbomatic 
asphalt mixer, which is fully computer 
controlled. can be operated either on the 
move or in situ, at capacities of up to 
200 tonnes per hour. The slightly smaller 
Roadbatch range of asphalt mixers, which 
have been sold to the International 
Airports Authority of India for use in 
Libya, has also proved a major success. 

Goodwin Barsby is also proud of its 
after-sales service. ‘We can guarantee 
customers an_ efficient, reliable and 
prompt service. It is first class, and avail- 
able worldwide,’ said David Strutt, the 
firm’s Export Sales Director. ‘ 

Mr Strutt is impressed by the com- 
petence of Libyan construction personnel. 
‘They are extremely polite, and know just 
what machinery they want,’ he said. 
Confirming the experience of other British 
businessmen who have first-hand know- 
ledge of the country, Mr Strutt added 
that Goodwin Barsby had not come up 
against any special problems in its trade 
with the Jamahiriya. The shortage of 
quality hotel accommodation in the capital, 
Tripoli, had been an irritant, he said, but 
he expressed his confidence that this 
difficulty would soon fade into the past. A 
number of major hotels have recently 
opened, and more are nearing completion. 
The next to open will be the 365-room 
Grand Hotel, on Tripoli’s seafront. 

David Strutt is optimistic that his com- 
pany will continue to play an important 
role in Libya’s development. ‘We hope 
that 1982 will see an even greater expan- 
sion of our involvement in Libya than last 
vear,’ he declared. ‘As the largest single 
overseas destination for our products, 
the Jamahiriya is very close to my heart,’ 
he added. 





Belgian housing 
for Misrata 

THE LAMY company of Verviers, 
Belgium, has won a $12.5 million 
subcontract to supply housing and 
other associated facilities for 
construction workers at the Mis- 
rata steelworks. The award was 
made by West Germany’s Fried- 
rich Krupp, the leader of a 
consortium supplying a steel pro- 
duction plant for the Méisrata 
complex. Lamy’s’ order, for 
completion in October, includes 
housing for 2,000 people, a 
hospital, schools, restaurant, 
shops, bakeries, swimming pools 
and other sports facilities. 

The Misrata steelworks is the 
largest single project in the Jama- 
hiriya’s 1981-85 development 
plan. The $3.3 billion first phase, 
for completion by 1985, provides 
for an annual capacity of 1.2 
million tonnes of steel. 

Major leisure 
facilities under 
way for Tripoli 

THE SWEDISH firm Skanska 
Cementgjuteriet has won a $25 
million contract to extend and 
upgrade the Jamahiriya’s national 
museum, in Tripoli. The exist- 
ing museum is housed in two 
separate buildings, separated by 
a wide road. Part of the museum 
is in the 2,000-year-old citadel 
that is one of the Libyan capital’s 
major landmarks. The _ other 
section is housed in a nearby 
building, within the citadel walls 
and dating from the time of the 
Italian occupation in the 1930s. 

The road separating the two 
parts of the museum will be 
closed, and Skanska will erect 
a three-storey building in the 
resultant space. The Swedish firm 
will also upgrade and renovate 
the existing museum buildings. 
When the project is complete, in 
1983, the national museum will 
have an exhibition area of about 
9,000 square metres. 

The scheme was designed by 
the American firm Henningson 
Durham & Richardson, and a 
contract for construction super- 
vision has been awarded to the 
Edinburgh office of the British 
consultants Robert Matthew, 
Johnson-Marshall & Partners. 

In another important leisure 
development for Tripoli, South 
Korea’s Samsung Construction 
Company has signed an $85.3 
million contract for the first stage 
of the Nasr Forest Project, an 
impressive scheme for a major 
leisure complex, to include a 
zoo and botanical gardens. The 
first phase entails the construc- 
tion of zoological gardens on a 
31,000 square metre site. About 






Housing schemes provide modern homes for Libyan citizens. 

forty animal cages will be built, 
and Samsung will also supply the 
animals. The first stage is due for 
completion in 1985. 

Later this year, Samsung 
reportedly hope to win contracts 
worth $146.9 million for the 
second and third stages of the 
Nasr Forest Project. Stage two is 
for a botanical garden and 
amusement park, and stage three 
is for a sports complex. 

While the Jamahiriya is 
pressing ahead with plans to pro- 
vide a full range of man-made 
leisure facilities for its citizens, 
the country’s natural resources for 
recreation and tourism are not 
being neglected. In March it was 
announced that the Finnish con- 
sultancy Dovecon is co-operating 
with the Jamahiriya’s Civil Engin- 
eering & Office Utilities concern 
in an environmental study of 23 
coastal towns, excluding Tripoli 
and Benghazi. The main objective 
of the report, due for completion 
in 1983, is to evaluate the potential 
for tourism and recreation. 

It was also disclosed that Dove- 
con is working on a masterplan 
to develop a stretch of coast 
20 kilometres long and 100 kilo- 
metres wide, in Tripoli. The east- 
ern end extends into the Sugq 
al Talaat area of the city, where a 
major complex of hotels and 
offices is nearing completion. 

consultant for 
water scheme? 

in association with Rendell Pal- 
mer & Tritton, also of the UK, is 
reportedly well-placed to win a 

major consultancy award for a sea 

water desalination plant in Tripoli. 
The desalination plant will have 
an eventual daily capacity of 
462.000 cubic metres, and will be 
one of the largest units in the 

The project is the third stage 
of a master plan to secure 
adequate supplies of high quality 
water for domestic use in the 
Libyan capital. The first two 
stages are already under way. 
The main contractor for both is 

West Germany’s Philip Holz- 
mann, which is working on con- 
tracts together worth $202.7 
million. The’ British Pencol 

consultancy firm is undertaking 
design and construction super- 
vision on both contracts. 

Work started about one year 
ago on the first stage, which 
entails building a pumping station 
and reservoirs, and developing a 
well-field with 89 boreholes 
south of the city. The pumping 
station will work at a maximum 

capacity of about 4,000 litres per 
second. The Yugoslavian film 
Geotehnika is engaged in drill- 
ing the new wells, and part of the 
field should be commissioned in 
summer. At first, there will be 
enough pressure for the water 
to reach Tripoli without the 
assistance of pumps, and a 
temporary pipeline has already 
been laid. 

Work on the second stage of 
Tripoli’s water supply master 
plan started about six months 
ago, and involves the construc- 
tion of a smaller pumping station 
to pump water to the city from the 
desalination plant. 

estimated at $6 

THE TURKISH firm Ozdemir 
Insaat has won a $140 million 
contract to build 900 homes and 
associated infrastructure at the 
town of Zliten, about 150 kilo- 
metres east of Tripoli, it was 
disclosed in March. The contract, 
awarded by Zliten municipality, 
includes the construction of two 
bridges, three administrative 
buildings, six football pitches, and 
the drilling of seven new water 

The Ankara-based firm has also 
won two contracts for work in 
the village of Tninay, near Bani 
Walid to the south of Tripoli. 
A $6.8 million contract is for 66 
homes, and a $2.9 million award 
is for a police station and 34 

More than one hundred Turkish 
construction firms are engaged in 
the Jamahiriya’s ‘development 
programme. At the end of last 
year the value of Libyan contracts 
on which Turkish firms had star- 
ted, or were about to start, was 
estimated at $6 billion. 

Survey for 1,235 
km water 

THE YUGOSLAV civil engineer- 
ing and mining concern Rudis has 
won a $600,000 contract for initial 
survey work for a major pipe- 
line in the Jamahiriya, which will 
carry water from subterranean 
aquifers in the desert to the 
coastal zone between Benghazi 
and Sirte. The Yugoslav news 
agency Tanjug reported on 27th 
February that Rudis will under- 
take a geodetic survey, involving 
aerial photography, to prepare 
a map showing a suitable route for 
the pipeline. 

The 2.4 metre-diameter, 1,235 

kilometre pipeline will carry 
about 2 million cubic metres of 
water per annum from the Tazerbo 
and Sarir areas, in south east 
Libya, for domestic and indus- 
trial use, and for the irrigation of 
some 50,000 hectares of the 
coastal belt. 

Italian and Japanese consortia 
have expressed interest in build- 
ing for construction work on the 
five-year, $7 billion scheme, but 
tenders have yet to be invited. 
Project and construction manager 
is Brown & Root of the US. 

New pharmacy 
faculty for Al 
Fateh University 

THE RAD concern of Yugoslavia 
has won a contract worth more 
than $67.5 million to build a 
pharmacy faculty at Tripoli’s Al 
Fateh University, it was disclosed 
in March. The contract, won 
against stiff competition from 
Italian and Swiss firms, will take 
30 months to complete. Con- 
sultant and construction super- 
visor is OTH International of 
Paris. The new faculty, to be 
built on a 40,000 square metre 
site, will mark a major step to- 
wards the completion of the entire 
Al Fateh University scheme, 
a key project in the Libyan Jama- 
hiriya’s $62.5 billion 1981-85 
development plan. 

estate for 

pressing ahead with plans for a 
light industrial estate on the coast 
about five kilometres north of the 
‘city centre, it was reported in 
March. Several plots have been 
allocated for factories, but site 
surveys will have to be conducted 
before the scheme can be con- 

Industry takes pride of place in 
the Jamahiriay’s 1981-85 develop- 
ment plan. 4.3 billion Libyan 
dinars have been allocated for 
industrial projects, accounting for 
23 per cent of total planned in- 
vestments. Heavy industry has 
been accorded LD 2.73 billion, 
and light industry LD 1.2 billion. 

French exports 
to Libya up 75 
per cent 

AFTER A _ period of strained 
relations which adversely affected 
trade ties, French-Libyan trade 
has begun to expand sharply. 


Recently published figures show 
that in 1981 French exports to the 
Libyan Jamahiriya increased by 
75 per cent to $826.7 million. 
Peugeot cars were the main ex- 
port, followed by a wide range of 
consumer goods. Imports from 
Libva — mainly oil — totalled 
$446.4 million in 1981, a slight 
fall on the 1980 figure. 

Relations between the two 
countries reached a low point in 
early 1980, after the January up- 
rising in the south Tunisian 
mining town of Gafsa. Paris 
joined the chorus of unsubstan- 
tiated allegations by western 
countries of Libyan involvement in 
the rebellion. In February 1980 
the French embassy in Tripoli 
and consulate in Benghazi were 
damaged by demonstrators pro- 
testing against the French 
accusations, and against wider 
French interference on the Afri- 
can continent. The victory of 
Francois Méitterand’s Socialists 
in the May 1981 general elec- 
tions, however, paved the way for 
a new era in French-Libyan 

S48 million 
investment in 
oil exploration 

bas) expects to invest a total of 
$48 million during its fiye year 
contract, awarded in 1980, to 
explore in a 29,600 square kilo- 
metre area in the Murzuk basin 
in the south west of the 
Jamahiriya, the London weekly 
Middle East Digest disclosed on 
12th March. 

The journal added that Libya 
supplies about 38,000 barrels of oil 
per day to Brazil, out of total daily 
imports of 850,000 barrels per day. 
The latest bulletin of the Brazil- 
ian Central Bank shows that 
Brazil’s imports from the Jama- 
hiriya in the first nine months of 
1981 totalled $282.7 million, a 
sharp rise on the 1980 total of 
$135.2 million. In the first nine 

months of 1981, Brazilian exports 
to Libya were only $9.7 million, 
compared with the 1980 total of 
$35.2 million. 

contract ‘highly 

Company for Chemicals Industries 
is to extend its contract with the 
West German firm KHD Engin- 
eering for operation, maintenance 
and training services at the Abu 
Kammash_ chemicals complex. 
The Cologne-based firm says that 
its existing three-year contract 
has been ‘highly satisfactory’. 

Located on the coast near the 
Tunisian frontier, the Abu 
Kammash complex was built by a 
West. German consortium — in- 
cluding KHD — and opened in 
1980. It is one of the Jama- 
hirivya’s key industrial plants, 
with an annual capacity of 60,000 
tonnes of polyvinyl chloride, 
50,000 tonnes of caustic soda and 
40,000 tonnes of table salt. 

A $28 million contract for an 
industrial and medical gas plant 
near Tripoli is expected to be 
signed shortly by a French-Italian 
joint venture of L’Air Liquide 

and Techint. The client is the 
Jamahiriya’s Light Industry 
Secretariat. The plant, whose 

main product will be oxygen, will 
take about two years to complete. 

Training for 

eering Projects, Austria’s Voest- 
Alpine, and the Italian firm 
Techint have been short-listed 
by the Jamahiriya’s Heavy Indus- 
try Secretariat for a $150 million 
contract to build two training 

schools for the Misrata_ steel 
complex. The schools, one in 
Tripoli, the other in Misrata, 

will each cater for 1,000 trainees. 
The Misrata steelworks is the 


Modern facilities for chemistry students in Libya; see item on Al Fateh University. 

single project in the 
Jamahiriya’s $62.5 billion 1981-85 


development plan. The $3.3 
billion first stage, scheduled for 
completion during the plan 
period, will have an _ annual 
capacity of 1.2 million tonnes per 
annum. The second stage, for 
completion by 1991, will increase 
capacity to 5 million tonnes per 
annum, and the final stage en- 
tails expansion to an annual 
capacity of 7 million tonnes per 
annum by the year 2000. The 
training schools contract will be 
one of the last to be awarded for 
the first stage of the scheme. 

In February, Ingersoll won a 
$42 million contract to train 
steelworkers in Britain, and 
both the other short-listed firms 
have also won contracts for the 
Misrata steelworks. Last year, 
Voest-Alpine won contracts valued 
at nearly $1 billion for the supply 
of steelmaking equipment, 
while Techint is a member of 
an Italian consortium that last 
vear won three orders together 
worth $300 million for non- 
production facilities at the plant. 


intensive care 
unit opens at 

ation to provide a full range of 
health care facilities for its 
citizens has been’ underlined 
by the opening on 11th April of a 
new intensive care unit at the 
central hospital in the coastal 
town of Zuwara, west of Tripoli. 
Fitted with the most modern 
equipment, the unit is manned by 
six doctors and sixteen nurses. 

Libya’s 1981-85 development 
plan provides for an increase in 
the number of hospital beds in 
the country from 14,472 in 1980 
to 23,765 by 1985. The ratio of 
beds to population will rise from 
4.5:1,000 to 6:1,000 in the same 
period. The 1981-85 plan allocates 
LD 600 million for the develop- 
ment of health services. 




The solution of the problem of Democracy 

The solution of the Economic Problem 

| PART 3 
The Social Basis of the Third Universal Theory 

In these three volumes the Libyan leader examines the economic, social 
and political problems confronting the world today, and presents a radical 
programme for their solution. 

The Green Book provides a comprehensive review of the theories 
on which the Libyan Jamahiriya is based. The proposals put forward by 
Muammer al Qadhafi are not merely theories but an explanation and 
insight into the structure and priorities of. modern Libya. 

Copies of The Green Book can be obtained from The Information 
Department, The Libyan People’s Bureau of the SociaJist Libyan Arab os 
5 St James’s Square, London SW1.